English writing : مجموعة من الإنشاءات

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English writing : مجموعة من الإنشاءات

مُساهمة  Admin في السبت 26 فبراير - 9:17

right of women

Nowadays we take it for granted that womenhave the same rights as men before the first world war few people believedthis.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded aswomen`s jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs weregenerally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry orin transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked asservants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look fortheir home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women werenot even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had beenstruggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these hadbeen the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak ofwar, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuitedto such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly thatwomen should not concern themselves with such male activities andvoting.
During the war many things changed

Language is obviously a vital tool not only is it a means ofcommunicating thoughts and ideas, but it forges friendship cultural ties andeconomic relationship.
Throughout history many have reflected on importance of languagefor instance language shapes thoughts and emotions , determining one’sperception of reality .language is not only a vehicle for the expression ofthoughts , perceptions , sentiments and values , It also represent ; afundamental expression of social identity .
Language of course is knowledge and in our world today, knowledgeis on the key factor in competitiveness.
Brains and knowledge are what create the prosperity and growth wetend to take for granted .In an advanced industrial society in an increasinglyinterdependent world the knowledge of other languages becomesindispensable.
In short, it’s very important to learn foreign languages butwithout forget your identity
You inscribe to University
Dear madam; Date:
I am writing to ask about opportunities to study interpreting inyour university, I am Moroccan, aged 19, and I hop to pass my baccalaureate well .I want to become a Translator or interpreter in Arabic French and English , ifI obtain a place at this university , my uncle who lives in Las Vegas ,will paymy expenses.
My first language is Arabic, I have also French since the age of 9 , I speak it fluently , and I have a good reading and writing knowledge ofit.
My second foreign language is English, which I do not yet speakfluently, however. I can read it quite well and can write a certain amount . Ialso have a limited knowledge of Spanish.
I should be grateful if you would send me details of yourentrance equipments a copy of your prospectus and an application form.

Dropping from school
The fact that student drop off from school is a serious problemsthat hinders the progress of student first and then the level of nationaleducation .
Most of students who drop off from school are poor, they speaktheir incapability of supplying, their parents obliged them to drop off from andlook for a job to help the family .
Other reason may be attributed to the students indifference .those students who stop going to school are villagers because they don’t attendclasses doing some agricultural work instead.
Other ex-students attest that leaving school is not an idea thatcomes at random but as a reaction to the dissatisfaction resulted by those whohave attained their degrees but gained no work after .
The government must do some serious attempts so that students cankeep up with their studies no matter what circumstances are .Also it should setplan to improve the educational system to most attainable one that open mindsand doors

Poverty is becoming a serious problems for many countries , itaffects the whole society and delays the development of the country .
Poor families very often have health problems , because they havelot of children , parents are unable to provide medicine for them ,also theycant send them to school since schooling is expensive , they send them insteadto work and bring them money , so when members of society are unhealthy orilliterate this affect the development of the country .
Poverty is a serious problem, an enemy that government shouldfight by trying to make all members of society benefit from the resources oftheir country and work for its development.

Parents-children relationship
Parents-children relationship differ from one family to another. While some parents complain that their children don’t listen to them anymore, children on the other hand complain that their parents don’t understand them anylonger .
My relationship with my parents is a good one , I respect themand understand them, the allow me to choose my friends my cloths to travel aloneand to invite friends home, however , they are very strict when it comes to myhomework or staying late out late at night .
To have a good parents-relationship is very easy thing if bothparents and children make efforts to create such a kind of relationship.

Traffic problems
There are many dangers when driving in a big city , traffic jams, road rage, car jacking drive-by- shootings ,smash-and-grabs , accidents orpurpose ambulance chasers , corrupt police , touring ,companies that can grabyour car in ten seconds .the list goes on.
Traffic jams are caused by drivers who tailgate and try to drivefaster than the flow of traffic , when drivers merge at the last second , theyhave to step on their brakes , and that causes the tailgaters behind them tostep on their brakes , roads rage occurs when someone loses self-control , somedriver is going too fast , this causes a clash , there are many reasons behindthe traffic jams problem.
The latter can also be attributed to the road code, violation , speed and carelessness , other reasons such as natural factors are involved ,snow , obscurity, and rain are most of them , one other cause is the poorinfra-structure .
Understanding these very real dangers will help you learn how toavoid or prevent traffic problems .drivers should drive safely and learn tomaintain self-control , the driver should be a street-wise so that he can takethe necessaryprecautions.

?Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantagesand disadvantagesOn the one hand, TV has became the most influential meansof the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the mostpopular source of information education and international , in brief TV bringsthe whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besidesstudents don't their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films ofviolence.

Working children
Child labour is one of the problems that many
countries face, thereare various causes that drive children to work some of them drop out of schoolin order to help their poor or sick parents others have to work because they areorphans. In addiction some parents are ignorant they think education is a wasteof time.
Working children face a tough life; in factories and mines theywork in bad conditions no fresh air, long hours they may be injured by machinesthey are also deprived of education and childhood

air pollution
air pollution can effect our health in many ways with a bothshort-term effects different groups of individuals are effected by air pollutionin different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants thanare others. young children and elderly people after suffer môre from effects ofair pollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung diseasemay olso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individualis harmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicalsi.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must betaken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit it ok

Humain rights
The concept of human rights has existed under several names inEuropean thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John ofEngland. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by whichEngland had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, orGreat Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of ashuman rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inheritproperty and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widowswho owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of dueprocess and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions inother parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called humanrights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineatinglimits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of theircitizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe severalphilosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to aperson by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of hiscitizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious orethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by somephilosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlyingprinciple on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religiousliberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drewheavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North Americaproclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which stillstirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration ofIndependence

In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organizeand maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creativeand productive goals, usually to generate profit.
The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the context of the individual as well asthe community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commerciallyviable and profitable work.
The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the singular usage to referto a particular company or corporation, and the generalized usage to refer to aparticular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computerbusiness," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goodsand services.
The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entitywithin an economically free society, wherein individuals organize based onexpertise and skills to bring about social and technological advancement.
Inpredominantly capitalist economies, businesses are typically formed to earnprofit and grow the personal wealth of their owners.
The owners and operatorsof a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation ofa financial return in exchange for their work — that is, the expense of time andenergy — and for their acceptance of risk — investing work and money withoutcertainty of success.
Notable exceptions to this rule include some businesseswhich are cooperatives, or government institutions.
However, the exactdefinition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, some Marxists use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business"; however a more accurate definition of "means of production" would be theresources and apparatus by which products and services are created.
Controlof these resources and apparatus results in control of business activity, andso, while they are very closely related, they are not the samething.
Socialists advocate either government, public, or worker ownership ofmost sizable businesses. Some advocate a mixed economy of private andstate-owned enterprises. Others advocate a capitalist economy where all, ornearly all, enterprises are privately owned.
Business Studies is taught as asubject in manyschools

When your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smokepretty much anywhere - even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over theplace. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smokingis restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies areno longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains, billboards, TV, and in manymagazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, andheart disease; that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that thehabit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people arestill lightingup!

A is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomesa physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and thisinteracts with human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack ofplanning, lack of appropriate emergency management or the event beingunexpected, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting lossdepends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability".[2] A natural hazard willhence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently beendisputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without humaninvolvement

Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration andinterdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, andecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps bestunderstood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such asenhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advancesof information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into oneglobal system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention theincreasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. TheEncyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which theexperience of everyday life ... is becoming standardized around the world." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence ofpatterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization ofculture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverseforms.

One the hand advertising makes consumers aware, of the new products on themarket and helps them spend their money wisely it also as creates many jobs .
On the other hand advertising makes people feel frustrated, if they can'tafford the products .it also increases the prise of goods what's more it urgesconsumers to buy unnecessary commodities .

For the first twenty years of motion picture history most silent films wereshort--only a few minutes in length. At first a novelty, and then increasinglyan art form and literary form, silent films reached greater complexity andlength in the early 1910's. The films on the list above represent the greatestachievements of the silent era, which ended--after years of experimentation--in 1929 when a means of recording sound that would be synchronous with the recordedimage was discovered. Few silent films were made in the 1930s, with theexception of Charlie Chaplin, whose character of the Tramp perfected expressivephysical moves in many short films in the 1910's and 1920s. When the silent eraended, Chaplin refused to go along with sound; instead, he maintained themelodramatic Tramp as his mainstay in City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936). The trademarks of Chaplin's Tramp were his ill-fitting suit, floppyover-sized shoes and a bowler hat, and his ever-present cane. A memorable imageis Chaplin's Tramp shuffling off, penguin-like, into the sunset and spinning hiscane whimsically as he exits. He represented the "little guy," the underdog, someone who used wit and whimsy to defeat his adversaries.
Eisenstein'scontribution to the development of cinema rested primarily in his theory ofediting, or montage, which focused on the collision of opposites in order tocreate a new entity. One of the greatest achievements in editing is the OdessaSteps sequence, in his film Potemkin (1925). Eisenstein intercut between shotsof townspeople trapped on the steps by Czarist troops, and shots of the troopsfiring down upon the crowd. Members of the crowd became individual characters toviewers as the montage continued. Within the editing track the fate of theseindividuals was played out. A mother picks up her dead child and confronts thetroops. Then she is shot. A student looks on in terror and then flees--his fateuncertain. An old woman prays to be spared, but she is killed by a soldier whoslashes her face with his saber. When a woman holding her baby carriage iskilled, she falls to the steps, and the carriage begins a precipitousdecline--shots of the baby crying are intercut with wide shots of the carriagerolling down the steps. To Eisenstein, each individual shot contributed anenergy within the editing track that yielded far more than the sum total ofshots. In other words, the "combination" of shots through editing created a newentity, based on the expressive emotional energy unleashed through the editingprocess.

Morocco recently saw a migration of the population of cities and villages meespecially in the last 50 years that happened Leone Morocco for independence. What are the reasons that drive housing villages to migrate to cities? And whatare the causes of migrations out of the negative impact?
-There is a rangeof reasons why the villagers to the cities Tahgerh me among them lack even themost basic means necessary hospitals and transportation means Finding workMestekareaulthossein circumstances of living .................. ect . The resulteased the congestion entire towns and neighborhoods Baladi shanties and Taherabegging and the use of young children Resulting from the whole circumcisioneased some tragic scenes
-Finally, I wish to state that changed everythingin their power to stop the advance of the pious and out of control the situation

educationencompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and alsosomething less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, goodjudgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals theimparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential andlatent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body oftheoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws onmany disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.
The education of an individualhuman begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe thateducation begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing musicor reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child'sdevelopment.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide farmore instruction than does formal schooling (thus Albert Einstein's admonitionto "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have aprofound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — thoughfamily teaching may function very informally

Terrorism is a term used to describe violence or other harmful acts. Terrorism expert Walter Laqueur in 1999 has counted over 100 definitions andconcludes that the "only general characteristic generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". Most definitions ofterrorism include only those acts which are intended to create fear or "terror", are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a "madman" attack), anddeliberately target "non-combatants".
As a form of unconventional warfare, terrorism is sometimes used when attempting to force political change by: convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harmor fear of harm, destabilization of an existing government, motivating adisgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopesof disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to acause.
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages interrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used aspolitical labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors asimmoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarelyidentify themselves as such, and typically use other generic terms or termsspecific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi ormujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in otherlanguages.
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of politicalorganizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wingpolitical parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries andruling governments.[1] The presence of non-state actors in widespread armedconflict has created controversy regarding the application of the laws ofwar.
An International Roundtable on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) hosted by Strategic Foresight Group recommended that a distinction shouldbe made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terror are criminalacts as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domesticjurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to aphenomenon including acts, perpetrators of acts of terror and motives of theperpetrators. There is a disagreement on definition of terrorism. However, thereis an intellectual consensus globally that acts of terror should not be acceptedunder any circumstances. This is reflected in all important conventionsincluding the United Nations counter terrorism strategy, outcome of the MadridConference on terrorism and outcome of the Strategic Foresight Group and ALDEroundtables at the European Parliament

Leisure time
Recreation is very important for one health whoever we are we needleisure activities because they enable us our minds and bodiesIf we go onworking without a break we'll get bord and exchastedTherfore we should spendour free time on the things we like doing much as listing to music and pratisingsport in this way we'll have energy to rasume our studies and warkingOK sanyI PPRESENT TO YOU THIS OBJECT OF THE HOW CAN AIR POLLUTION HURT MY HEALTHairpollution can effect our health in many ways with a both short-term effectsdifferent groups of individuals are effected by air pollution in different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. youngchildren and elderly people after suffer môre from effects of airpollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung disease mayolso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individual isharmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicalsi.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must betaken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit itok

Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one raceis superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19thcentury many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientifictheories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists haverejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientificconcept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Raciststhemselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states thatracism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one statesthat racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion orculture

women working
There have been a lot of chages in our social life in the lastdecades .many more women working ,of course ,has the lifestyle of manyfamiliesMany people are worried whether a carrer women can properly care forthe children the advantage of women workingwomen and men are equal andshould also have the right have a jobwomen should hlep in the devlopment oftheircountrycarrer mot her are usually educated and so can help theirfamilythe disadvantage of carrer women : women find ut difficult to takevery good care of children while working out side they usually nturn home tiredoften a day 's work outside the also have to deal with the house work the areleft with litter time to care for their childern .
thes affect a lot thewhole family ,and may cause problems for children at schol ....e bc.
.finallyi say that at taking good care children of women /mothers alonneman/fathershould also share this responsibility with their wiveslife is getting veryexpensive and women to help theirfamily

A drought
A drought is a prolonged, abnormally dry period whenthere is notenough water for users' normal needs. Drought is not simply low rainfall; if itwas, much of inland Australia would be in almost perpetual drought. Becausepeople use water in so many different ways, there is no universal definition ofdrought.

Meteorologists monitor the extent and severity of drought in termsof rainfall deficiencies. Agriculturalists rate the impact on primaryindustries, hydrologists compare ground water levels, and sociologists define iton social expectations and perceptions

nowdays TV viewers have a wide choice of channels .more and more peoplehave got satellite TV not all of them are satisfied with it .
satellite TVhas both advantages and drawbaks . whats is de advantages and drawbaks ofTV,?
-satellite TV brings the whole world into your home there a variety ofprogrammes to choose fromit helps people improve foreigs languages and there arelots of entertaining ...educating programmes. You may not feel bored.
-andthe drawbaks of satellite TV :
People spend too mush time watching TV andthey become passive and lazy there are too many channels and it is oftendificulet to choose the right programme and the people watch foreign TV channelsand not their national TV .
Thy don't know what is happening in their country ,they might forget about their own culture and problemChildren don't dotheir homework ,don't read enough .
-satellite TV like any other technologyis means to an end people should be selective and watch interesting programmesonly.

It's not necessarily a fact that small families are the best, but the factthat raising just one child is extremely expensive. There is the hospital bill, one must have good medical/dental (very expensive) for those toothaches, possible braces, fevers, scrapes, childhood diseases, not to mention the manyshots children get during their younger years. There is clothing, food, a goodhome to live in, education and other hidden costs. Your child is better adjustedif they (a boy) are put into a sport at the age of 5 or 6, or if it's a girl, into dancing, etc., to keeping them off the streets and also give them insightas to what the future can hold for them. It costs many thousands of dollars toraise one child, and I use to know the stats on it, but it has since changed.
If a family can afford more than 2 children (good to have sibling) then theyshould go for it. I have known families during the 50s to 70s where there were 5 - 8 kids in a family and they were all well adjusted kids, not to mention theoldest child always ends up helping mom and pop out. Large families can be fun, but if you can't afford it this can cause a great deal of pressure on theparents and either shorten their life span or end in divorce. To have a largefamily you have to be wellorganized

A language is a system used to facilitate communication among higher animalsand/or computers. This article is about the fundamental features typically foundin nearly all natural human languages. For information about artificiallanguages specifically for computers, please see instead machine code. Higheranimals believed to employ audible language only, without symbols, include, butare not limited to, dolphins and whales. For information about this subject, please see "Animal communication" instead

A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does notconstitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a givensociety. A sociological minority is not necessarily a numerical minority — itmay include any group that is disadvantaged with respect to a dominant group interms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power. Toavoid confusion, some writers prefer the terms "subordinate group" and "dominantgroup" rather than "minority" and "majority".

In socioeconomics, the term "minority" typically refers to a socially subordinate ethnic group (understoodin terms of language, nationality, religion and/or culture). Other minoritygroups include people with disabilities, "economic minorities" (working poor orunemployed), "age minorities" (who are younger or older than a typical workingage) and sexual minorities (whose sexual orientation or gender identity differsfrom the sociological norm).
The term "minority group" often occurs alongsidea discourse of civil rights and collective rights which gained prominence in the 20th century. Members of minority groups are subject to differential treatmentin the society in which they live. This discrimination may be directly based onan individual's perceived membership of a minority group, without considerationof that individual's personal achievement. It may also occur indirectly, due tosocial structures that are not equally accessible to all. Activists campaigningon a range of issues may use the language of minority rights, including studentrights, consumer rights and animal rights. In recent years, some members ofsocial groups traditionally perceived as dominant have attempted to presentthemselves as an oppressed minority, such as white, middle-class heterosexualmales.
Studies have consistently shown a correlation between negativeattitudes or prejudice toward minorities and social conservatism (as well as theconverse, positive attitutes and social progressivism).[2] Minority groups inhistory, include Jews under Nazi Germany and African Americans in the Jim Crowperiod

World science is dominated today by a small number of languages, but Englishwhich is probably is the most popular global language of science and of moderntechnology that because many reason: first it is international language and themajority of country used it as their home language, In addition to that you canunderstand what happen in the world, in the other hand you can understand thenew technology, moreover we see that the people that speak more than twolanguage have a chance to get a better job than the other people who can speakjust one. And also it is very important to student who want finish their Hightstudy in university.
Finally English will become more important in the futureand more using in all things

What i do in my free time ? Well, i like to exercise and sports, especially Karate. Just the same, i like to watch a football match or a goodfilm sometimes.
Music- now that`s somethingi like as much as sport. I veryoften listen to music on the radio.but what i lke best is reading books onbiology,chemistry and physics. These are my favourite subjects at school.whatabout friends? Ilike to be with them on Saturday

Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one raceis superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races..
In the 19thcentury many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientifictheories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists haverejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientificconcept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination basedon alleged race. Raciststhemselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states thatracism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one statesthat racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion orculture

Millions of women throughout the world live in conditions of abjectdeprivation of, and attacks against, their fundamental human rights for no otherreason than that they are women.
Combatants and their sympathizers inconflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic ofCongo, Afghanistan, and Rwanda, have raped women as a weapon of war with nearcomplete impunity. Men in Pakistan, South Africa, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistanbeat women in the home at astounding rates, while these government salternatively refuse to intervene to protect women and punish their batterers ordo so haphazardly and in ways that make women feel culpable for the violence. Asa direct result of inequalities found in their countries of origin, women fromUkraine, Moldova, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Burma, and Thailand arebought and sold, trafficked to work in forced prostitution, with insufficientgovernment attention to protect their rights and punish the traffickers. In Guatemala, South Africa, and Mexico, women's ability to enter and remain in thework force is obstructed by private employers who use women's reproductivestatus to exclude them from work and by discriminatory employment laws ordiscriminatory enforcement of the law. In the U.S., students discriminateagainst and attack girls in school who are lesbian, bi-sexual, or transgendered, or do not conform to male standards of female behavior. Women in Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia face government-sponsored discrimination thatrenders them unequal before the law - including discriminatory family codes thattake away women's legal authority and place it in the hands of male family members - and restricts women's participation in public life

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network ofinterconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching usingthe standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consistsof millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents ofthe world wide web.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States tocreate the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 toregain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information ProcessingTechnology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic GroundEnvironment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systemstogether for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying humanrevolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory atHarvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in informationtechnology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratoryand worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, wherehe bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first publicdemonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited LawrenceRoberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based thetechnology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for theU.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuitswitching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, thefirst node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called theARPANET, one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated tocreate the first international packet switched network, referred to as theInternational Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew fromEurope and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The firstTCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the UnitedStates' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university networkbackbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by theopening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separatenetworks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet includeUsenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such asX.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a largeprivately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in citiesthroughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This networkeventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol becameincreasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existingcommunication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowedfor a great ease of growth. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a singleglobal TCP/IP network originated around thistime.

Terrorism is a term used to describe violence or other harmful acts.they areclassified terrorism into six categories.Civil Disorders.Political Terrorism .Non-Political Terrorism.Quasi-Terrorism.Limited Political Terrorism .Officialor State TerrorismTerrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear andpublicity. They usually use explosives or poison, but there is also concernabout terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Terroristorganizations usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may trainparticipants, plant "undercover" agents, and raise money from supporters orthrough organized crime. Communication may occur through moderntelecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers.Thecontext in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolvedpolitical conflict.
The type of conflict varies widely; historical examplesinclude:
Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign stateDominanceof territory or resources by various ethnic groupsImposition of aparticular form of government, such as democracy, theocracy, or anarchyEconomic deprivation of a populationOpposition to a domestic governmentor occupyingarmy

A revolution (from Late Latin revolutio which
means "a turnaround") is a significant change that usually occurs in a relatively shortperiod of time. Variously defined revolutions have been happening throughouthuman history. They vary in terms of numbers of their participants (revolutionaries), means employed by them, duration, motivating ideology andmany other aspects. They may result in a socio-political change in thesocio-political institutions, or a major change in a culture or economy. Scholarly debates about what is and what is not a revolution center aroundseveral issues. Early study of revolutions primarily analyzed events in Europeanhistory from psychological perspective[citation needed], soon however newtheories were offered using explanations for more global events and using worksfrom other social sciences such as sociology and political sciences. Severalgenerations of scholarly thought have generated many competing theories onrevolutions, gradually increasing our understanding of this complex phenomenon


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